Concept of personality
“Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with other” –Stephen P. Robbins et al. 

“personality means how people affect others and how they understand and view themselves, as well as their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and the person- situation interaction”- Fred Luthans 

Hofstede’s Framework of Personality

1.Individualism versus collectivism
2.Masculinity versus femininity 
3.Uncertainty avoidance
4.Power distance
5.Long –term versus short- term orientation
6.Indulgence versus restraint

These six dimensions provide the framework for describing national cultures which may determine human personality. 

1.Individualism versus collectivism
Individualism is the degree to which people prefer to act as individual rather than as members of groups. They believe individual rights. Collectivism is concerned with people like to work in group. They believe group rights.

2. Masculinity versus femininity 

Masculinity is the degree to which the culture favors traditional masculine values. 

Femininity is the degree to which the culture favors liberal feminine values. 

3. Uncertainty avoidance 

Uncertainty avoidance is concerned with the degree of taking risk on certain things. 

Strong uncertainty avoidance culture is the tendency of avoiding future uncertainty. 

People use rule, laws, and controlled system to reduce uncertainty. 

Weak uncertainty avoidance culture is the tendency of accepting the uncertainty and ambiguity. 

People use less rule and laws oriented. 

4. Power distance 

Power distance is concerned with that all individuals in societies are not equal, indicating a culture towards inequalities amongst individuals. 

Centralized power culture allows the individual for unequal distribution of authority and resource allocation. 

Diffused power culture play down individual differences by sharing or decentralizing power.  

5. long-term versus short-term orientation 

Long-term orientation emphasizes the future and value thrift, and persistence. 

Short- term orientation emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfillment of social obligations. 

6. Indulgence versus Restraint 

Indulgence is the degree to which it is alright for people to enjoy life, have fun, and fulfill natural human desires. 

Restraint is the extent to which there are 

social norms governing the gratification 

(satisfying) of basic human desires and people’s behavior. 

•Approaches to Understanding Personality Traits and Dimensions 

  • Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors 
  • The “Big Five” Personality Theory 
  • Personality Profiling Using DISC Methodology 
  • Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation- Behavior 

1. Cattell’s 16th Personality Factors 

Raymond Cattell is British psychologist. He found a model of 16 personal traits in human personality through the factor analysis. 

2. The “Big Five” personality theory 

  • Big five factors can be used to explain the differences in human personality. 
  • Each factor represents one aspect of an individual’s personality and style. 
  • The big five factors are extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and oneness to experience. 


This dimension focuses on the comfort level of an individual in interaction with others. 
It shows relationship ability of individual. 

  • Extroverts 
Extroverts individuals are interactive with people and they always try to involve in any events. They are sociable, talkative, and assertive. 

  • Introverts 
Introverts individuals are reserved in nature and they do not want to involve in any events. 

They tend to be reserved, timid, and quiet. 

2. Agreeableness 

Agreeableness indicates the extent to which person agrees with the view of others. 

  • High agreeableness 
  • High agreeableness people are cooperative, warm, and trusting. 
  • Low agreeableness 
  • Low agreeableness people are cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic. 

3. Conscientiousness 

It refers to the extent to which individuals show consistent and reliable behavior while working in the organization. 
  • High conscientious 
A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. 
  • Low conscientious 
Low conscientious person is easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable. 

4. Emotional stability 

It refers to the ability of an individual to control his or her emotions at the time of crisis. 
  • Emotional stable 
Persons having emotional stable tend to be calm, self-confident, secure and relaxed. 
  • Emotional unstable 
Persons having emotional unstable tend to be nervous, depressed, anxious and insecure. 

5. Openness to experience 

It deals with range of interest and fascination (charm) with novelty. 

  • High openness 
  • High openness people are creative, curious, and sensitive. 
  • Low openness 
Low openness people are resistant to change, closed to new idea, fixed in their ways. 

3. Personality Profiling Using DISC Methodology 

  • This was developed by Dr William Moulton Marston (1928). 
  • He described that behavior of people can be either active or passive i.e. into two axes response towards hostile or favorable environment. 
  • He proposed four variables DISC. 
  • In 1950, Dr Thomas Hendrickson and other developed the personality profile analysis (PPA) based on Dr Marston’s theory. 
  • This profile helps to identify the personality characteristics within a person. 
  • Every person will have a unique profile of his or her own that makes the individual fit or misfit to perform certain kinds of job. 

  • It relates with the person emphasis on accomplishing results, the bottom line, self-reliant, accept challenges, confidence. 
  •  Person is motivated by winning, competition and success. 
  • Person prioritizes accepting challenge, taking action and achieving immediate results. 

2. Influence 

  • It relates with the person. Person emphasis on influencing others, openness, relationships, outgoing, friendly, optimistic. 
  • Person is motivated by social recognition, group activities, and relationships. 
  • Person prioritizes taking action, collaboration, and expressing enthusiasm. 

3. Steadiness 

  • It relates with the persons. persons emphasis on cooperation, sincerity, dependability, good listening, patience show loyalty, reliable. 
  • Person is motivated by cooperation, opportunities to help and sincere appreciation 
  • Person prioritizes giving support, collaboration and maintaining stability 

4. Compliance 

  • It relates with the persons emphasis on quality and accuracy, expertise, competency, committed to quality. 
  • Person is motivated by opportunities to gain knowledge, showing their expertise, and quality work. 
  • Person prioritizes ensuring accuracy, maintaining stability, and challenging job. 

Fundamental interpersonal relations orientation- behavior (FIRO-B) 

  • It was developed by Will Schutz (1958). 
  • In this, personal needs of an individual also affect on personality and behavior of the person. 
  • He suggests that such individual needs of person influence on interpersonal relationship, how the person reacts and influence others behavior and actions. 
  • It helps us understand how the following three different needs of individuals shape their interactions with others at work, or in their personal life. 

1.Inclusion (I) 
  • This refers to the need for recognition, participation, and belongingness to other. 
  • It is the social needs of individual. 

2. Control (C) 
  • This relates to the needs of an individual to lead and influence others as well as take responsibility for actions. 
  • Such needs are esteem needs in people. 

3. Affection (A) 
  • This refers to the needs for closeness, warmth, and sensitivity towards other people. 
These three needs are measured on two dimensions of expressed and wanted behavior. 
  • Expressed behavior 
It refers to the degree of an individual behavior in which s/he really wants to do or exhibit. 
  • Wanted behavior 
It indicates the degree to which an individual wants others to take action. 

1.Locus of control 
  • Locus of control refers to one’s belief that his behavior is guided by external control or internal control. 
  • Two categories of locus of control: Internal( circumstances are within the control of self) external ( blaming to others)
2. Authoritarianism 
  • It is the degree to which a person believes that status and power differences are appropriate in organization. 
  • people with high authoritarianism prefer strong control of authority at the center. (autocratic leadership) 
  • Low authoritarianism people wish to follow participative leadership style.

3. Dogmatism 
  • Dogma is the code or system of belief on own idea or view. 
  • Dogmatism refers to the degree of flexibility or rigidity of a person’s views. 
  • High dogmatism is the tendency in which people show rigidity in their idea. 
  • Low dogmatism is the tendency in which people show flexibility in their idea. 
4. Machiavellianism 
  • Person so focused on their own interest they will manipulate and deceive and exploit others to achieve their goals. 
5. Risk propensity 
  • This refers to a person’s willingness to take risks. 
  • High risk taking managers use less information and time to make business decisions. 
  • Low risk taking managers use more information and time to make decisions. 
6. Self esteem 
  • It is the tendency of an individual thanking self- importance or believing own capability to attain the goals. 
  • It is the judgment one makes about one’s own worth. 

7. Self- monitoring 
  • This refers to the degree to which people are sensitive to others and change their behavior to meet external exceptions and situations. 

                    Concept of Attitude 
“Attitudes are evaluative statements-either favorable or unfavorable- concerning objects, people, or events.”-Stephen R. Robbins 

“An attitude can be defined as a persistent tendency to feel and behavior in a particular way toward some object”. – Fred Luthans 

“Attitudes are relatively stable clusters of feeling, beliefs, and behavioral dispositions (or intentions) towards some specific object”. – Kavita Singh 

1.Cognitive Component ( Believe) 
  • The cognitive component of an attitude reflects our beliefs or ideas about an object or situation. 
  • It consists of information and belief about object, people, and events. 
2. Affective component (feel) 
  • The affective component of an attitude contains our feelings or emotions about a given object or situation. 
  • The feeling about object, event or people may be positive, negative or neutral. 

3. Behavioral Component (intend) 
  • The behavioral component refers to the way we intend or expect to act toward someone or something. 
  • It show the intention of an individual to behave in certain way toward an object, event or people. 
1.The adjustment function 
  • Attitudes help people to adjust to their work environment. 
2. Ego defensive function 
  • It refers to holding attitudes that protect our self-image and also justify actions that make to feel guilty. 
  • The attitude serve to justify the action and to defend the ego. 

3. Value- expression function 
  • People usually express their positive values in the minds of other people. 
  • It enable an individual for expressing centrally held values.

4. Knowledge function 

It refers to one’s need which is consistent and relatively stable. 

1.Barriers to changing attitudes 

A.Prior commitment 
  • When people commit towards a particular course of action, they do not agree for change. 

B. Insufficient information 
  • Insufficient information also acts as a majors barrier to change attitudes. 
1.Provinding new information 
  • Providing the sufficient new information to the employees and change the employees’ attitude. 
2. Use of fear 
  • Attitude of employees can be changed by using the fear factor. 
3. Resolving discrepancies 
  • By resolving the discrepancies between attitude and behavior of the people, their attitude can be changed. 
4. Influence of friends or peers 
People change their attitude with request of their friends or peers. 

5. The co-opting approach 
Co-opting means involving people who are dissatisfied with a situation(showing different attitude) in improving situation. 

Meaning of Organizational Commitment 

Organizational commitment is the employees’ positive attitude towards the organization in which they are working. 

It is the degree to which an employee becomes loyal with organization. 

“Organization commitment is the degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization". -Stephen P. Robbins 

1.Affective commitment 
Affective commitment is concerned with the emotional attachment of an individual to its organization. 

2. Continuance commitment
Continuance commitment is the perceived economic value to stay in an organization in comparison to leave the organization. 

3. Normative commitment 
It is refers to the extent to which an employee feels obligated to continue the organization. 

1.Commit to people –first value 
The focus should be given to value of the employees in the organization. 

2. Clarify and communicate mission 
The management needs to appeal all the employees to consider organizational philosophy, mission and objectives. 

3. Guarantee organizational justice 
The justice and kindness must be guaranteed for every employee of the organization. 

4. Community of practice 
All the members of the organization should have the feeling of community and belongingness. 

5. Support employee development 
Training and development programs 

Concept of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) 

OCB is the tendency of advocating positively to the organization in which people are working. 

Employees who are satisfied from their organization will show their citizenship behavior in the organization. 

OCB emphasized to maximize the efficiency and productivity of the employees and the overall organization performance. 

Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post